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PERSPEC✝IVA XXII 2023 nr 2 (43)



Krzysztof Adamski

Between the criticism of the technocratic paradigm in Pope Francis’s social teaching and the vision of competent and just authority on a global scale.
Abstract: Pope Francis, in his social teaching contained in the encyclical Laudato si’ and other documents, consistently criticizes the technocratic paradigm. He perceives it as a mode of conducting exploitative global economy serving the interests of narrow groups of wealthy and influential individuals, ultimately resulting in environmental degradation and climate change with unimaginable consequences for the planet’s future. Advocating for the primacy of politics over economics, Francis proposes a multidimensional collaboration of people of goodwill for the common good on a global scale, without endorsing a personal office to coordinate these processes.

Keywords: technocracy, technocratic paradigm, meritocracy, Catholic social teaching, multilateralism, globalization, ecology

Ks. Krzysztof Wojciech Batóg

The theological significance of the concept of filein in wisdom literature, based on texts from the Septuagint.
Abstract: The thematic scope of the study pertains to the concept of philia in the context of Hellenistic culture, the Septuagint, and wisdom literature. Philia is a term with multiple meanings. In Hellenistic culture, friendship was considered the highest virtue. It could only be formed between individuals of the same social status and exclusively between men. Philia contained all the feelings accompanying friendship, love and kinship. Friendship was not only seen as a deep relationship between individuals but could also have elements of erotic, sexual, and homosexual love. The ideal of friendship involved both parties in the relationship working together towards a common goal, whether it be political success, victory in war, or discovering the philosophical truth. In the Septuagint, the expression philia referred to both interpersonal relationships and the superior being – God, as well as the virtue of wisdom. The usage of the word filein in wisdom literature is very diverse: from marital and erotic love, the love of wisdom, and building relationships with others to desire, longing, and the description of the loss of a significant person, considered a friend. It also conveyed encouragement to seek wisdom through love, which is a gift from God for human being. 

Keywords: philia, filein, love, friendship, relations, wisdom, marriage

Eryk Cichocki

Military lexis in selected Catholic journals. The linguistic-theological commentary
Abstract: The article falls within the trend of linguistic research on religious language, specifically focusing on the language of Catholicism in Poland. In addition to general observations regarding the military language used in the Church, the research aims to analyse and provide a linguistic-theological interpretation of military vocabulary found in “Gość Niedzielny” and “Tygodnik Powszechny”. The study is of a quantitative-qualitative nature and emerges from the latest strategies in corpus linguistics research. Data extracted from the journals received a linguistic-theological commentary.

Keywords: religious language, military lexis, catholic weekly magazines, functions of religious vocabulary, catholic discourse.

Ks. Bogusław Drożdż

In the field of understanding the principle of formal practical theology (methodological clarifications)
Abstract: We distinguish the formal principle from the formal object or formal cause. If, for theology as a science, the formal object has a constitutive significance, the formal principle does not need to be perceived as unequivocal. In the article, we ask about the formal principle of theology in general and, specifically, in practical theology. We are not asking whether pastoral theology is competent to formulate the formal principle of practical theology. We explicitly believe that the search for this principle by pastoral theology, for the practicing theology as a science (theoria) and the theological praxis carried out in the pastoral-apostolic activity of the Church, is an absolute methodological priority.

Keywords: theology, practical theology, pastoral theology, formal principle of theology, formal subject of theology, formal cause.

Marcin Fankanowski

“Me” in the face of war – biographical and generational reminiscences
Abstract: The author attempts to present the transformations in the attitudes towards war among individuals from the generation raised in the People’s Republic of Poland (PRL), influenced by the slogan of “inhabiting a continent without wars”, as well as the impact of war on various aspects of life when it appears in geographical and psychological proximity. The considerations are illustrated with examples from everyday life and the results of social opinion research. The author’s thesis is: war defines the life of individuals during wartime, even if they are not direct participants.

Keywords: war, “me” in the face of war, the proximity of war, public opinion.

Krystyna Laszczyńska-Fankanowska

Values in the situation of war – axiological and cultural contexts
Abstract: The aim of the article is to present dilemmas associated with objectivist axiology in an extreme situation. The author puts forward the thesis that values exist objectively, regardless of external circumstances. Analysing selected examples of cultural texts from creators entangled in war within the contexts of the philosophy of values, she attempts to answer the question about the conditio humana when the space of certain fundamental references is covered with the dust of ruins and loved ones are killed by deadly bullets. Engaging in this reflection, she concludes that the universe of what is objective constantly exists, irrespective of circumstances, constituting the mystery of the truth of being.

Keywords: value, objectivist axiology, war, culture.

Magdalena Malik

Religious relations in the Second Polish Republic (1918-1928)
Abstract: 11 November 1918, was a day of victory for the Poles in the struggle for independence, freedom, and sovereignty. The young state faced numerous challenges: defining the permanence of borders, determining principles of religious policy, creating administrative structures, and organizing educational institutions. The plan required effort and overcoming many difficulties. One of the key issues during the construction of the new state system was determining the legal status of the Church and religious education in schools. In 1925, the Sejm of the Second Polish Republic ratified an agreement between the Holy See and the Polish side. According to the provisions, the Catholic Church gained broad autonomy and unrestricted freedom for non-religious activities. It was granted a series of privileges that distinctly distinguished the position of Catholicism from other denominations in Poland. The legal foundations for the religious education system were defined by the March Constitution, and its provisions were solidified by the concordat and another fundamental law from 1935.

Keywords: Catholic Church, independence, concordat, Poland, religion.

Jakub Niewiński

Pax et bonum. Et benignitas
Abstract: The date of 24 February 2022, becomes a significant turning point in thinking about the readiness of Poles to change their behaviour towards the “other” and develop analogous hermeneutics. The Polish school faced the challenge of changing the teaching and learning paradigm in classes where students from a completely different educational reality appeared, mostly non-Polish speakers, understanding simple commands to some extent, and already having their families in Poland (some of them). Teachers, with great enthusiasm and in an atmosphere of kindness, welcomed new students with migration experience from Ukraine every day in their teams. The text attempts to look at the past year from the perspective of didactic pragmatism in the context of the philosophy of dialogue and reflection on the hospitality and openness of Poles. The starting point for the considerations is J.R.R. Tolkien’s novel The Hobbit, Or There and Back Again, interpreted in a parabolic way, where the main character Gandalf becomes a metonymy for a guide – a teacher who, instead of a magic wand, uses a smartphone.

Keywords: the other, analogous hermeneutics, students with migration experience from Ukraine, philosophy of dialogue, hospitality, kindness, peace, teacher, school.

Adam R. Prokop

Attempt to philosophical reflection on descriptions of war in the dilogy about King Matt I the Reformer
Abstract: The article concerns the phenomenon of war in Janusz Korczak’s (1878-1942) dilogy dedicated to King Matt. The aim is to attempt a rational understanding of the phenomenon itself, its impact, and the issues related to assessing human actions in its context. The structure of considerations corresponds to the order appearing in the text, where the explanation of philosophy includes the ontological, anthropological, and ethical issues. The research perspective, as well as the bibliography, have intentionally been narrowed to the intertextual level, with possible references to general knowledge. Essential and valuable references to historical, biographical, and pedagogical matters are mainly found in the footnotes. The necessary and valuable references to historical, biographical and pedagogical issues were mainly found in footnotes.

Keywords: Janusz Korczak, King Matt, war, upbringing, childhood.

Bp Andrzej Siemieniewski

The academic century of women in Catholic Italy
Abstract: Popular imagination connects the beginning of women’s activity in the academic world with the historical liberation from Catholic dominance in society. In this light, reader is usually surprised by the situation of the Papal States in Italy, where at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, women gained institutional access to education for the first time in history and, initially in limited numbers, access to academic degrees. The focus of our study includes the best-documented examples: Elena Piscopia (1646-1684), Laura Bassi (1711-1778), Cristina Roccati (1732-1797), Clotilde Tambroni, Maria Agnesi (1718-1799), and several others. With the fall of the Papal States and this form of papal authority, the twilight of this phenomenon, rightly called the “academic century of women in Catholic Italy”, quickly arrived.

Keywords: woman and university, academic degrees, education of women, “academic centenary of women”.

Michał Stachurski

How to preserve humanity during war? A philosophical perspective on selected issues in Polish war and camp literature
Abstract: It is assumed that humanity is most challenging to preserve in extreme situations. The concept of an extreme situation was coined by contemporary existentialists, among others by Karl T. Jaspers. Undoubtedly, one of the most challenging extreme situations is the experience of war. In such times, individuals confront themselves with the past, and in the difficult present, they respond to questions about their identity and ethical condition in the face of their own and others' suffering. The search for answers regarding the preservation of humanity during war is undertaken by war literature, which is classified as factual literature describing the challenging reality of World War II. The article aims to attempt an answer to the question: can humanity be preserved in the face of war, and how? With the aim of doing it, one draws from philosophical texts and war literature, including those by Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, and Marek Edelman.

Keywords: war, war literature, World War II, humanity, ethics, dignity.

Tomasz J. Trzeciak

Love as the foundation of marriage and marriage as the image of god in the views of popes Benedict XVI and Francis
Abstract: The aim of the article is to answer the question of whether Popes Benedict XVI and Francis present a theologically coherent vision of marriage in their public teachings. The study is conducted from the perspective of dogmatic theology and is primarily based on the encyclical Deus caritas est and the post-synodal apostolic exhortation Amoris laetitia. Issues related to marriage as an image of God and love as the foundation of marriage are discussed. The conclusion compares both theological perspectives on marriage.

Keywords: Benedict XVI, Joseph Ratzinger, Francis, theology of marriage, sacrament of marriage, love, Deus caritas est, Amoris Laetitia.

Katarzyna Wasiutyńska

The experience of war and the idea of universal brotherhood. Theological-spiritual reflection in the light of Pope Francis’s Fratelli tutti
Abstract: After the drama of two world wars in the first half of the 20th century, subsequent years brought much hope and signs indicating a desire for peace and unity. Even more painful is the current experience that hatred still plays too significant role in the world. Therefore, the drama questions are returning whether the idea of universal brotherhood is not appealing but utopian theory and whether a Christian, realistically observing the world, can translate the message of the encyclical of Fratelli tutti to his daily life. The article attempts to provide answers to these questions from a theological-spiritual perspective

Keywords: war, universal brotherhood, Fratelli tutti, the Church’s social teaching, spirituality.



Adam Szpotański

The case with the codename “Missionaries”: Female religious congregations in the Świdnica district 1947-1954
Abstract: The Church in the People’s Republic of Poland (PRL) experienced persecution on various fronts. One element of the communists’ struggle against the Church was an attempt to infiltrate religious congregations. According to received guidelines, the district-level state security authorities conducted operational activities within their respective territories.
Keywords: Nuns, Church in the times of communism, PRL



Radosław Czerwiński

Bp Ignacy Dec

Ks. Bogdan Giemza SDS

Ks. Robert Nęcek

Robert Nęcek

Janusz Stefaniak

Krzysztof Garczarek


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